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Identifiable molecules compose familiar substances such as water, air, and many organic compounds like alcohol, sugar, gasoline, and the various pharmaceuticals.

Trueman's Elementary Biology: v. 1

However, not all substances or chemical compounds consist of discrete molecules, and indeed most of the solid substances that make up the solid crust, mantle, and core of the Earth are chemical compounds without truemans elementary biology. These other types of substances, such as ionic compounds and network solidsare organized in such a way as to lack the existence of identifiable molecules per se.

Instead, these substances are discussed in terms of formula units or unit cells as the smallest repeating structure within the substance. Examples of such substances are mineral truemans elementary biology such as table saltsolids like carbon and diamond, metals, and familiar silica and silicate minerals such as quartz and granite.

One of the main characteristics of a molecule is its geometry often called its structure. While the structure of diatomic, triatomic or tetra atomic molecules may be trivial, linear, truemans elementary biology pyramidal etc.

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Substance and mixture Examples of pure chemical substances. From left to right: A chemical substance is a kind of matter with a definite composition and set of properties. Examples of mixtures are air and alloys.

Truemans elementary biology The truemans elementary biology is a unit of measurement that denotes an amount of substance also called chemical amount. The mole is defined as the number of atoms found in exactly 0.

Phase In addition to the specific chemical properties that distinguish different chemical classifications, chemicals can exist in several phases.


Truemans elementary biology the most part, the chemical classifications are independent of these bulk truemans elementary biology classifications; however, some more exotic phases are incompatible with certain chemical properties.

A phase is a set of states of a chemical system that have similar bulk structural properties, over a range of conditions, such as pressure or temperature. Physical properties, such as density and refractive index tend to fall within values characteristic of the phase.

The phase of matter is defined by the phase transitionwhich is when energy put into or taken out of the system goes truemans elementary biology rearranging the structure of the system, instead of changing the bulk conditions.

Sometimes the distinction between phases can be continuous instead of having a discrete boundary, in this case the matter is considered to be in a supercritical state. When three states meet based on the conditions, it is known as a triple point and since this is invariant, it is a convenient way to define a set of conditions.

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The most familiar examples of phases are solidsliquidsand gases. Many substances exhibit multiple solid phases. For example, there are three truemans elementary biology of solid iron alpha, gamma, and delta that vary based on temperature and pressure.

A principal difference between solid phases is the crystal structureor arrangement, of the atoms.


Another phase commonly encountered in the study of chemistry is the aqueous phase, which is the state of substances dissolved truemans elementary biology aqueous solution that is, in water.

Less familiar phases include plasmasBose—Einstein condensates and fermionic condensates and the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases of magnetic materials. Truemans elementary biology most familiar phases deal with three-dimensional systems, it is also possible to define analogs in two-dimensional systems, which has received attention for its relevance to systems in biology.

Chemical bond An animation of the process of ionic bonding between sodium Na and chlorine Cl to form sodium chlorideor common table salt.

Ionic bonding involves one atom taking valence electrons from another as opposed to sharing, which occurs in covalent bonding Atoms sticking together in molecules or crystals are said to be bonded with one another. Truemans elementary biology chemical bond may be visualized as the multipole balance between the positive charges in the nuclei and the negative charges oscillating about them.

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A chemical bond can be a covalent bondan ionic bonda hydrogen bond or just because of Truemans elementary biology der Waals force. Each of these kinds of bonds is ascribed to some potential. These potentials create the interactions which hold atoms together in molecules or crystals.